The first producer of Vanilla beans
Madagascar is an island located in the southern hemisphere, in the western part of the Indian Ocean, separated from Africa by the Mozambique Channel of 415km. It is the fifth largest island in the world in area (592,040 km2).
The largest island stretches 1580km from north to south, and is wide from 500 to 575km from east to west. The Tropic of Capricorn passes through the south of the island.
It consists of several mountain ranges as a backbone from north to south. The summit is located in the north, in the Massif Tsaratanana, reaching an altitude of 2876m (Maromokotra), while the second peak, Andringitra, 2658m (Boby peak), is located in the southern part. In the center, Ankaratra rises to 2642m (Tsiafajavona, literally "the cloud does never leave")
The Highlands, between 1000 and 1500m average altitude are most large part of the island. The east coast is distinguished from Highlands by a series of steep cliffs, to no longer be a narrow coastal plain towards the sea. The westward transfer is slower, through wide grassy peneplains and alluvial plains along the major rivers of the island.
Madagascar has five distinct climate zones:
- To the north and northwest (Sambirano), the area has equatorial climate. The region suffers heavy annual rainfall due to monsoon between December and April.
- On the east coast, we have a wet climate. It is constantly exposed to the Alizé (trade winds) and regularly suffers devastating tropical cyclones between January and March. On the north, annual rainfall may exceed 4000mm. Dense vegetation primary forest.
- The vast western region of Madagascar is less rainy than the previous one and is characterized by two distinct seasons: the rainy season from November to April and the dry season from May to October. Landscape: Grassland and gallery forests. Temperatures range from 10 to 37 ° C.
- In the center of the island, the Highlands are at an altitude that varies between 1 200 and 1 500 m. The climate can be likened to a subtropical climate with dominant summer rainfall, with annual average temperatures of 21 ° C.
- The extreme south of the Big Island (south of the Tropic of Capricorn) is very dry and the rains are rare. The temperature range is very high ranging from 6 ° C to 40 ° C. The climate is semi-desert kind.
There are also microclimates that may differ from those areas that concern them.
Madagascar is a Unitary State, a Republic (REPOBLIKAN'I MADAGASIKARA); the capital Antananarivo, located in the central part of the island, at more than 1400m altitude.
The division of the country into 22 regions was adopted to replace the six former provinces in 2003. Each Region includes two or more districts. Several municipalities make up each district. The Malagasy is the official language. French is a language of communication in administration and trade.
Madagascar had more than 20 million people in 2010, more than 50% of young people, fewer than 20 years.
There are 18 main ethnic groups, some of which consist of several subgroups. Peaceful nature of the Malagasy has a jovial, easy affordability.
Statistics suggest more than 80% of rural population and a literacy rate of about 20%, despite compulsory education of any child fewer than 15 years.
The national currency is the ARIARY(MGA). (1 euro = 3000MGA, 1 USD = 2600 MGA end of January 2015)
Madagascar has one based on agriculture economy. Main crops: rice which is the main meal of Malagasy people. In breeding, it should be noted the importance for the Malagasy zebu.
The processing sector is slowly changing with the creation Industries textiles, food, mining and tourism.
Madagascar exports agricultural products (vanilla beans; clove bud; coffee; cocoa; cinnamon; pepper; various beans and vegetables..), mining (chrome; nickel; cobalt; various precious stones), textiles, garment, and handicrafts.
Madagascar is the first producing country of Vanilla beans which is the most used flavor ice cream, pastry, soft drink, in the World.
Madagascar is the second world producer of clove.
The majority of the urban population works in the informal sector, and out of control of the state.
Madagascar produces a variety of spices, whose qualities are well established.
Malagasy does not much that Asian spice up, his dishes. Very few know the cloves, vanilla, pink pepper and even pepper and cinnamon. By cons, chilli, ginger, turmeric, onion, garlic, and others are part of the culinary heritage of Madagascar. For these products, the demand of the local market is very important, so much so that it's hard to compete with, if not impossible, on the export market.
Vanilla, queen of spices
Madagascar is the largest producer of Vanilla, which provides the best perfume, the most used in the World, in ice cream, pastries, soft drinks and especially fine cuisines.
Introduced in the late 19th century, this culture currently supports more than 100,000 farmers in the region of SAVA, northeast of Madagascar. It also exists in other areas throughout the East Coast of the island, but to a lesser extent.
The annual production of Madagascar Vanilla is 900 to 1500Tonnes, depending on the year.
Trimeta AGROFOOD one of the leading players in the vanilla sector, both on the local market and on the World Market.
Continuously subjected to winds of Alizee, the East Coast of Madagascar is very suitable for growing Clove. Its culture is from southern Vohemar in the SAVA region to northern Manantenina in the ANOSY Region.
Madagascar holds the second place in World production of Clove, after Indonesia, with 12,000 to 15,000 MT annually.
In addition, 1200 to 2500T essential oil Clove Leaf (commonly known as Essence Clove) is produced and exported annually from the Analanjirofo region (literally, Forest of Clove).
Trimeta AGROFOOD is one of the best references on the quality of the Clove, in the Global market.
Pepper cultivation is practiced on the East Coast and in the extreme Northwestern Madagascar. Although the quality is very much appreciated by importers, harvesting represents only 0.5% of world production. The annual export is less than 1500 T.
Cinnamon grows on the entire east coast of Madagascar. However, the island is exporting an average of 1500-2000 t per year, mostly in the form of chips.
The cultivation of pink pepper (schinus terebethifolius) grows in the Middle West and Trimeta AGROFOOD works with Farmers Associations of Producers in the Bongolava Region, to promote this spice for export.
Madagascar is one of major producers of Essential Oils in Africa.
Of these, Essential Oil Clove Leaf (Clove Leaf Oil) is the most important. Madagascar is known for its essential oils of ylang-ylang, Clove bud, Cinnamon, Niaouli, etc.
The essential oils of Geranium, Patchouli, Palma Rosa, Vetiver, of Kaffir Lime, etc. are well known by professionals.
Madagascar is also known for its essential oil of Ravintsara, from a variety of cinnamomum camphora, which is highly sought in aromatherapy (because of absence of camphor).